National Water Safety Forum


Data and research

Unintentional & Intentional injury

Unintentional & Intentional injury Report
Global report on drowning: preventing a leading killer (World Health Organisation 2014)  
Water incident related hospital admissions across England between 1997/8 and 2003/4: a retrospective descriptive study. Wilson and Henderson. (2005)  
The epidemiology of non intentional inland drowning on open water in Great Britain between 1989-2001. Henderson, Wilson and Cornall. (2005) * +
Drowning of British Children Abroad: An Indication of a European Problem. Sibert et al. Presented at the 7th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Vienna, 2004. *  
Inland Drowning Trends in Great Britain. Henderson et al. Presented at the International Boating and Water Safety Summit, Las Vegas (2003). * +
World report on child injury prevention.   WHO website
UK Incident Database Gap Analysis. HSL *(PDF) +
Drowning: injury topic briefing (WHO) WHO website
Drowning: factsheet (WHO, 2023) WHO website 
Reports from the Environmental Physiology & Ergonomics Research Exchange EPERE website
The UK Missing Person Behaviors Study. Perkins and Roberts (2011)  


UK WAter Incident Database Reports (WAID) Report
 WAID landing page  

Participation Rates

Participation rates Report
Watersports Participation Survey (2022)  
Watersports Participation Survey (2021)  
Watersports Participation Survey (2020)  
Watersports Participation Survey (2019)  
Watersports Participation Survey (2018)  see 2018 link
Watersports Participation Survey (2017) (PDF 2.4mb)
Watersports Participation Survey (2016) (PDF1.7mb)
Watersports Participation Survey (2015) (PDF2.3mb)
Watersports Participation Survey (2014) (PDF 1.21mb)
Watersports Participation Survey (2013) (PDF 1mb)
Water Sports and Leisure Participation Survey (2012) (PDF 1mb)
Active people survey. Sport England (Annual) Sport England web site

Public Risk Themes

Public risk themes


Landowners' liability? Is perception of the risk of liability for visitors accidents a barrier to countryside access? Bennett and Crowe (2008).

Sheffield Hallam University

On the safe side: Risk, risk management and volunteering. Gaskin (2006).

Institute for Volunteering Research

Nothing ventured... Balancing risks and benefits in the outdoors. Gill (2010)

English Outdoor Council

Redefining Risk: Girls shout Out. Girlguiding UK (2009)

Girlguiding UK

Managing Risk in Play Provision: Implentation Guide.  Ball et al (2nd Edition 2013)

Play England

Playgrounds - risk, benefits and choice


RNLI Lifeguards as First Responders 2007. Dawes, Lorimer, Knight*, North
*South Western Ambulance


Research evidence review report for Child Death Review on drowning  Public Health Wales (2015)



We look to review and update this page periodically. If you have a published paper or report that would be useful please contact us and we'll look to list it.

£ - Paywall
+ - Offline access only. Many of these are held by the RoSPA information centre.